Malaiyamān Thirumudi Kāri was one of the kings of the Tamil royal house clan Velir of the Malaiyamān dynasty. He is one of Kadai ezhu vallal, literally the last of the seven great(lines) patrons of art and literature. The Malaiyamān chiefs ruled over the Tirukoyilur area also known as Kovalur. It was a strategically important region located on southern the banks of the Pennar river and en route from west coast to the east coast via Arikamedu in ancient Tamilakkam. They traced their lineage to the ancient Chedi Kingdom mentioned in the Kurukshetra warThirumudi Kari rose to become a powerful emperor in Tamilakkam before he was killed by the early Chola king Killivalavan.

Defeat against Athiyaman
In 118 CE, he waged war on Thagadoor against the famous Athiyamān Nedumān Añci. It was an attempt fuelled by his longtime desire to become an emperor equivalent in power to the Cholas. After a fierce battle, Kāri would lose Kovalur to Athiyamān and would only regain it much later after Peruncheral Irumporai sacks Tagadur.
Victory against Ōri
In 120 CE, the Chera king Paalai paadiya Perum Cheral Irumporrai sought his strategic help in the conquest of Kollimalai. Kaari agreed to conquer Kollimalai for the Chera and it was agreed that the Chera should on his behalf invade Thagadoor in order to avenge his earlier defeat. This strange pact was due to the strategically important easy access points favouring the Chera and Kaari in the case of Thagadoor and Kollimalai respectively. Kāri defeated and killed Ōri, another Vēlir king and took Kolli Hills[7]. In turn the Chera undertook the march of Thagadoor, which is memorialized in the Thagadoor Yaaththirai of Sangam literature.
[edit]Turn of events

Thus with the help of the Chera, Kaari was climbing on the ladder to become an emperor. He began to overshadow the Chola King Killi Valavan. This prompted the Chola king to check Kaari's growth with an invasion on Thirukkoiloor. The battles were fierce, but Kaari was determined to win or die. As a result the Cholas lost 10,000 soldiers in the first five days of the war. But on the sixth day the Malaiyamaan princes, Kaari's three-year-old twin sons, were caught by the intruding Chola spies, giving the Cholas an edge. Killi Valavan began dictating terms and Kaari was forced to venture into the enemy campsite, where he was caught and killed immediately.
The Chola king planned to crush the two princes by walking an elephant over them, but by the timely intervention of poet Kōvūr Kizhār, he changed his mind.
excerpt from Purananuru song 46 by Kōvūr Kizhār:

You were born into the line of him who relieved the pain of a dove..
..They are children, still wearing their hair unoiled,
and when they see the elephant they forget their tears.
Then confused, they look around the field and feel terror, they never imagined.


The boys were raised with the patronage of the emperor and served as generals of the Chola army under Killi and his son Rasasuyam Vaetta Peru Nal Killi. After the death of Vēl Pāri, another Vēlir king, poet Kapilar takes the daughters of the former and leaves them in the care of Brahmins. Later poetess Auvaiyar takes them and marries them to Deiveegan of the Malaiyaman family.
Kadai ezhu vallal

Malayamaan Thirumudi Kaari is considered one of the seven greatest "bestowers" of the last Sangam era - the Kadai Ezhu Vallalgal . The people of his time considered him the most modest of kings. Nobody left empty-handed after paying a visit to him and the visitor who came on barefoot would usually return mounted on a horse or an elephant of his choice. He called himself not a king but a "rightful servant of his beloved people".
excerpt from Purananuru, song 123 by Kapilar:

Anyone, if he drinks toddy in the morning
and gets happily drunk by the time he holds court,
can give away chariots.
But Malaiyan whose good fame never lessens,
gives without getting drunk more tall ornamented chariots
than there are drops in the clouds
that form over the rich Mullūr mountain


Modesty
During peacetime, the king of Mulloor and Thirukkoiloor would usually start his daily routine in the paddy (nel), saamai and thinai fields working with his plough and sickle. He was strong and said to be so kind-hearted that he would rather plough his fields by hand than to trouble bulls to work for him.
In one story about Kaari, the Tamil poet and saint Avvaiyaar II happened to pass by his field on course a long journey. Kaari quickly recognized the tired "mother" and without introducing himself requested that she look after his field for a few minutes and help herself to his rations in the meantime, so that he could go to a nearby pond to fetch some water. The king was away for long during which time the saint ate well and fell asleep. When sun rose the next day, Kaari returned to the field to find old mother angry. Kaari revealed his identity and explained that since she was a great friend of Athiyamaan of Thagadoor, who was his archrival, he feared she would not agree if he asked her to rest in his land. So he had to make her stay a while and bestow his land with her saintly presence. Avvaiyaar, flattered, blessed his country with perennial prosperity.
From inscriptions and literature

There are a lot of inscriptions available about various chiefs from the Malaiyaman family. They mostly suffixed the title Chēdirāyan to the name of the reigning Chola king whom they served. For example, we have Vikramasola Chēdirāyan and his son Vikramasola Kovalarayan, Kulottungasola Chēdirāyan etc. They were rulers of Miladu and also bore titles such as Milad-udaiyan meaning lord of Miladu, Maladu-mannar or king of the inhabitants of hills, Malaiya-manattarkukku arasar or the king of inhabitants of the great country of hills. Miladu or Maladu is a very pure Tamil form of Malainadu or the hill country. Meyporunayanar, a Chēdi king from Tirukovalur is mentioned in the Periyapuranam. Another important person from the same line was Pillai Perumāl Chēdirāyan, a contemporary of poet Kambar[13].
We have a lot of chiefs of the Malaiyaman family making donations to temples in and around Tirukoyilur. For example, we find that Kulothunga Chola II gifted some lands for the puja at the local Vishnu temple at the request of Kulottungasola Chēdirāyan(ARE 124 of 1900). We have another chief called Rajendra Chola Chēdirāyan making donations to the temple(ARE 388 of 1909) in Tirukkoyilur. Yet another chief, Malaiyan Chēdirāyan endowed one vēli of land to the temple at Somasikiranur

.

6 comments:

உடையார் said... 5 August 2013 03:57

பார்க்கவ குல மக்கள். மலாடர்=மலையர்=சேதியர்=மழவர்.
பார்க்கவ குல மக்கள் வேளாண்மையிலும் ஈடுபடுவதால் வெள்ளாளர் போன்ற ஒரு ஜாதியாக அறியாதவர்களால் கருதப்படுகின்றனர்.ஆனாலும் உண்மையில் சத்திரிய சமூகமான இவர்கள் எவ்வாறு எப்போது நில உடைமையாளர்களாக ஆனார்கள் என்று வரலாற்று ஆராய்ச்சியாளர்கள் கொடுத்த விளக்கம் இதோ.....(UDAIYAR,MOOPANAR,NAYINAR)

LITERATURE CASTE AND SOCIETY.(REFERENCE BOOK)
TAMIL SOCIETY AND THE MILITARY IN THE AGE OF THE MEDIEVAL CHOLAS.
WARFARE AND SOLDIERS.

Noboru karashima examined seven inscriptions from uttathur which belongs to the periods of the RAJARAJA 3rd.

These inscriptions all recorded within three years of the reign of RAJARAJA3rd show land transaction (selling and buying) by several suruthimans fellows in the Thiruchchirapalli district.
The suruthimans seem to be closely related to the palli, vanniya or agambadiyar castes and claimed kshathriya origin.

we find the earliest reference of the surutiman community in an inscription dated 1015 AD where a suruthiman lays down his life as a vanguard soldier in the battle of katakkam.
Another suruthiman referred to in 1141AD as a member of the urattur nadu and as landholding was an important qualification for being a nattar,we can presume that this person was a kani-holder.in the next one referred to in 1150AD we find the person mentioned as a land holder(UDAIYAN) Natalvan.
so here we find an erstwhile non-peasant martial community slowly transforming itself and becoming substantial landlords in the lower cauvery basin in the thirteenth century.

சேர வம்சத்தின் மலையர் வம்சத்தைச் சேர்ந்த மக்களான இவர்கள்...

"கள்ளர் மறவர் கனத்ததோர் அகமுடையர் மெல்ல மெல்லவே வந்து வெள்ளாளர் ஆனாரே"

என்ற பழமொழிக்கு ஏற்ப மெல்ல மெல்ல வெள்ளாளர் ஆயினர். அதாவது பனிரெண்டாம் நூற்றாண்டு காலத்தில் நில உடைமை சமூகமாகி உடையார்,நாட்டார்,நாடாள்வார்,கிழார்(மூப்பனார்),
வேளாளர்(வெள்ளாளர் அல்ல)
என்ற அந்தஸ்துகளில் இருந்து கால மாற்றத்தின் போது உண்டாகும் பல்வேறு அரசியல் காரணங்களால் பதினெட்டாம் நூற்றாண்டு முதலாய் பார்க்கவ குலத்தாரில் பலரும் முழுமையான விவசாயிகளாக மாறினார்கள்.

ஆனாலும் என்றைக்கும் தம்மை வெள்ளாளர் என்று கூறிக் கொண்டதும் கிடையாது. வெள்ளாளர்களோடு மண உறவு கொண்டதும் கிடையாது.
சித்திர மேழி பெரியநாட்டார் என்ற அமைப்பில் நாட்டார் பதவியில் இருந்த இவர்கள் வெள்ளாளர்களில் இருந்து தம்மை வேறுபடுத்திக்காட்டவே பதினைந்தாம் நூற்றாண்டிலேயே தம்மை பார்க்கவ குல சத்திரியர் என்று அழைத்துக் கொண்டனர்.
ஏனெனில் மன்னராட்சிக் காலந்தொட்டே வெள்ளாளரிடம் வரிவசூல் செய்யும் கடமை கொண்ட பண்டாரத்தார், பண்டரையர் போன்ற பதவிகளைக் கொண்டவர்கள் பார்க்கவ குல சமூகத்தவர்.பார்க்கவ வம்சத்து மலையமான் மக்கள் அனைவரும் மலையர் மலாடர் என்று வழங்கப்படும் ஒரு மரபைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள்.சேதியர் என்றும் பொதுப் பெயரால் அழைக்கப்படுபவர்கள்.
எட்கர் தர்ஸ்டன் பார்க்கவர்களைப் பற்றிய குறிப்புகளில் வேட்டுவ மறவர்கள் என்கிறார்.இது மழவர்களை நேரடியாக சுட்டுகிறது. .Tradition traces the descent of the three castes from a certain Deva Raja, a Chera king, who had
three wives, by each of whom he had a son, and these
were the ancestors of the three castes. There are other
stories, but all agree in ascribing the origin of the castes
to a single progenitor of the Chera dynasty. It seems
probable that they are descendants of the Vedar soldiers
of the Kongu country, who were induced to settle in the
eastern districts of the Chera kingdom.

N. Murali Naicker said... 1 May 2014 12:07

The Kallar caste prime argument is about their thousands of titles, which are totally absent in the South Indian Inscriptions (S.I.I) and Annual Report on Epigraphy (A.R.E). In this regard, I have spoken to Mrs. Roopavati, HoD of History Department in Annamalai University. The madam said that, the "Kallar" caste people came down from the South of Tamil Nadu during "Nayaka" period and "Maratha" period and settle down in the Tanjore and its adjoining areas. Still now, they used to go to South of Tamil Nadu for their family deity god (Kuladeiva) worship. That is why, their thousand of titles are absent in the S.I.I and A.R.E inscriptions. The thousands of titles were assumed by them in the very later period. Hence, the role of "Kallar" caste is totally absent during, cholas and its prior times.

At the same time, hundreds of titles are available for "Vanniya Kula Kshatriya" community in the cholas inscriptions mentioning with caste name. Many Chieftains/Feudatories (Minor dynasties under cholas) are from the "Vanniya" community during imperial chola times and they are very close relatives of them. Similarly, the "Surutiman" community having 30 to 40 titles in the cholas inscriptions mentioning with caste name. The "Nattaman" is also having ample number of titles in the cholas inscriptions. The other communites like, "vellalar", "Kammalar", "Idayar", "Kaikolar", "Pallar" and "Paraiyar" are also having few titles in the cholas/pandyas inscriptions. The title "Chola Paraiyan" is mentioned in Thiruthuraipoondi cholas inscriptions.

(Cont'd.....)

N. Murali Naicker said... 1 May 2014 12:10

The "Vanniya Kula Kshatriya" Chieftains/Feudatories during chola period are as follows:

The "Kadavarayars" mentioned in the cholas inscriptions, as "Palli" and "Sambu Kulam" by caste. The "Sambuvarayas" mentioned in the cholas inscriptions, as "Palli", "Vanniyan" and "Sambu Kulam". The "Malayamans" mentioned in more than 10 cholas inscriptions, as "Vanniyan", "Vanniya Nayan" and "Vanniar" (very close relatives of Sambuvarayas). The "Paluvettaraiyar" mentioned in the cholas incriptions/copper plate, as "Kerala Kings" (Cheras}, and the relatives of "Mazhavars" & "Kolli Mazhavars" (Ori king line). Many of their kings name such as "Kandan Maravan" means the "The real warrior". The "Tundanadudaiyar" of 10th century A.D. mentioned in the cholas inscriptions, as "Palli" by caste and they are considered at par with "Vanagovaraiyar". The "Vannadudaiyar" of 10th century A.D. mentioned in the cholas inscriptions as "Palli" and "Surutiman". The "Irungolars" of 10th century A.D. mentioned in cholas as "Palli" and "Surutiman". The "Pangalanattu Gangaraiyar" of Pallava/chola times mentioned in cholas inscriptions as "Vannian". The "Nilagangaraiyar" mentioned in the cholas inscriptions/Later copper plates, as "Palli". "Vanniya Nayan" and "Sambu Kulam". The "Vanagovaraiyars" mentioned in the cholas/Pandiyas inscriptions as "Palli". "Vanniyan". The "Mazhavarayars" mentioned in the cholas inscriptions as the close relatives of imperial cholas and the year 1511 A.D. copper plate refers them as "Vanniyas". Their descendants "Ariyalur Chieftains" mentioned in copper plate/documents/poems as "Palli" and "Vanniyan". The "Kadanthaiyar Chieftains" mentioned in the cholas inscriptions with the title "Mutharaiyar". They are "Palli" by caste according to "Aduthurai" cholas inscriptions. The year 1511 A.D. copper plate refers them as "Vanniyas" along with "Mazhavarayas".

(Cont'd.....)

N. Murali Naicker said... 1 May 2014 12:14

The splitted groups of "Vanniyas" are "Surutiman" and "Nattaman". The year 1009 A.D, Uttattur cholas inscription of Raja Raja Chola-I, clearly mentioned about "Surutiman Peruman Palli (alias) Periyavel Muttaraiyan" (Surutiman Peruman Palliyana Periyavel Muttaraiyan). He is obviously "Vanniya" by caste and also "Surutiman". According to Tamil Lexicon, the word "Suruti" means both "Split" and "Learned men". The "Learned Men" cannot be taken for the word "Surutiman", Since, during the period of the chola king "Rajendra chola-I, in the year 1015 A.D, "Surutiman Nakkan Chandiran (alias) Rajamalla Muttaraiyan attacked the royal elephants of Satyasraya, the Chalukya King in the battle of Kadakkam and lost his life". Such a "War Heros" Surutiman cannot be placed under "Learned men". The "Uttattur" (Ariyalur Dist) is the place where, the large numbers of "Surutiman" community people are still living from the chola times. During the period of Kulotunga chola-III, the "Surutiman" told a story in a inscriptions, that they came from "Agni" to destroy two demons. This story is similar to "Vanniya Puranam". More over, the "Irungolar Chieftains" mentioned in chola inscriptions as "Palli" and "Surutiman". Similarly, the "Vannadudaiyar Chieftains". The eminent scholar Dr. L. Thiyagarajan, states that, "During the region of Vikrama Chola (1118 - 1136 A.D) and of his successors, inscriptions give enough information to show the "Palli" and "Surutiman" castes of this region (Ariyalur & Perambalur) supplied Soldiers, Officials and Generals to the Chola Government and enjoyed status in the contemporary society".

(Cont'd....)

N. Murali Naicker said... 1 May 2014 12:16

The "Nattaman" mentioned in chola inscriptions as "Yadava Kulam", which means "Velirs", the "Kshatriyas". The Rajendra Chola-I and Rajendra Chola-II, inscriptions mentioned the "Malayaman Kings" belonged to "Bhargava Gotra" and had the title "Yadava Kula". The "Yadava Kula", Hoysala king Vira Vallala Deva-III, mentioned as "Vanni Kula/Agni Kula" in the 14th century authentic work "Arunachala Puranam". The "Hoysalas" are the descendants of "Agni" born line of "Rastrakutas" and "Chalukyas". That is why, the imperial cholas had the matrimonial relationship with them.

The cholas descendants are "Pichavaram Poligars" (Royal Family). They are entitled to crown in the "Thillai Natarajar Temple", the family deity of imperial cholas. Others are not entitled for the same is clearly mentioned in the hymns of "Periya Puranam" of 12th century A.D written by the noted poet "Sekkizhar". The "Pichavaram Cholas" are mentioned in their documents as "Kshatriya" by caste.

N. Murali Naicker

N. Murali Naicker said... 8 May 2014 13:53

In the Blog "Bargava Kula Udayargal" the "Kallar community" writers says that, the Chieftains "Irukuvelir" belongs to them by the way of :

Irungovelir = Irungovalar = Irungolar = Irunkallar = Kallar (i.e) "Kallar Community.

What a good idea to make such word history. Naga Land = Nether Land = Scot Land = Switzer Land. This is not a history. Valid evidence is history.

Irukuvelirs are the "Velir Clans" who ruled Kodumbalur region in the Sangam period and also later period. The another sect of "Velir Clans" of the Sangam period who ruled from "Pidavur" (Modern Pudaiyur Kattumannarkudi of Kadalur Dist). A territory called "Irungolappadi" which existed comprising parts of Udaiyarpalayam, Kattumannarkudi, Tittakudi, Virudhachalam taluks on both the banks of the Vellar river was ruled by the Chiefs of "Irungolar Royal Family" during imperial cholas period and had marriage alliance with them.

According to cholas inscriptions "Irungolar" Chieftains/Feudatories are called as "Palli" (Vanniyas) / "Surutiman" (Moopanar) by caste.

Kulothungacholiyar, daughter of "Navalur Irungolar" and wife of "Tundarayan Thiruchirrambala Udaiyar" of Tenur.

A line of Chieftains/Feudatories who ruled the Ariyalur region during imperial cholas period was called as "Tundanadu Udaiyar" and "Tundaraiyan". They are "Palli" by caste.

During the period of Virarajendra Chola (1067 A.D), "A lady named Marutandaki setup a lamp in the siva temple for merit of "Pakkan Senni" who was a son of "Kuttan Pakkan (alias) Jayankonda Chola Tunda Nadalvan" a "Palli" of Karaikkadu.

"Tundanaudaiyar Cholakula Sundran Kalyanapuramkondan" (Conqueror of Chalukyas). He was called as "Tenur Udaiyan" during the period of Kulotunga Chola-I. These Chieftains/Feudatories are considered at par with "Vanagovaraiyars".

"Tunda Nadu Udaiyan Ekavasagan Kulotungan (alias) Pillai Vanagovaraiyan" (1180 A.D).

"Tunda Nadu Udaiyan Ekavasagan Ulagukanividutta Perumal (alias) Vanagovaraiyar" (1184 A.D).

An officer of "Palli caste" named "Sendan Suttamallan (alias) Vanagovaraiyan" received a land called Tirumugakani from the king and he also made a gift of land to the Sennivanam temple in 1137 A.D. His another record in Aduturai (1130 A.D) mentions that he guilded the "Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyar temple" with Gold".

During the region of Kulotunga Chola-I, "Palli Sengeni Senapati Vanarajar" also appears.

In view of the above, "Irungolar Chiefs" are "Palli" / "Surutiman" by caste. The "Tunda Nadu Udaiyar" chiefs considered at par with "Vanagovaraiyar Chiefs" are "Palli" by caste and they had very close matrimonial relationship with each other and also with imperial cholas.

The eminent scholars "Tudisai Kizhar Chidambaranar", Thiru. Natana Kasinathan, Noboru Karashima agrees that 'Palli" and "Surutiman" are from same clan.

Why the "Kallar" community intruded in the name of "Agamudaiyar" to claim "Surutiman/Nattaman Udaiyar community means, certain "Irungolar Chiefs" had the Portfolio as "Agambadi Mudali", which means the "Officers" "Thalapathi", "Senapati" etc. under imperial cholas. The "Kallar community" mistaken the "Portfolio" name (Agambadi Mudali) as "Agamudaiyar caste" is great joke in history. Without knowing the fact, they started writing word alteration/modification history such as

Agambadi Mudali = Agamudaiyar = Udaiyar = Kallar = Maravar

Therefore, connecting the "Mukkulathor" (Kallar, Maravar, Agamudaiyar) with Surutiman/Nattaman Udaiyar on the above said formula is proved as wrong and all the writings made by them are considered as invalid/false.

 
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